Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders and affects children, adolescents, and adults with prevalence rates from 3 to 10 percent. Biological connections are strong contributors to the occurrence of ADHD as heritability (genetics) plays as role in 80% of cases.
There are three types of ADHD:
- The Inattentive Presentation (commonly referred to as ADD) involves distractibility, reduced attention to detail, organizational challenges, and short attention span.
- The Hyperactive/Impulsive Presentation includes restlessness, impulsivity, and self-monitoring challenges.
- The Combined Presentation involves both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.
People with ADHD may:
- Have difficulty paying attention
- Daydream a lot
- Experience memory problems
- Not seem to listen
- Be easily distracted
- Process information slowly
- Be impulsive
- Seem forgetful and disorganized
- Be overly restless, squirming and fidgeting
- Encounter problems with doing things on time
- Talk excessively and interrupt
- Have trouble quickly finishing tasks
- Act and speak without thinking
- Have co-existing learning disabilities
Getting a proper diagnosis is the first step. Assessment involves interview, neuropsychological testing, follow-up and an extensive detailed report. Measures are also completed by the client and collateral sources, such as parents, partners, and school professionals. After identifying the issue, treatment recommendations can be made regarding home, school, study, work, personal, and social areas, as well as medication appropriateness.
Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is well recognized and can promote significant frustration and worry in our fast-paced culture. Many individuals with childhood ADHD experience ongoing symptoms as they mature. Adults experience difficulty with executive functioning in a number of ways:
- Impulsivity in relationships
- Trouble starting and finishing tasks
- Switching jobs
- Forgetting and misplacing everyday items
- Not listening
- Disorganization and poor planning skills
- Limitations with multitasking
- Slowed task execution
- Forgetting names